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Each of the dimensions of the vector corresponds to different domains where a task can be categorized, for example: motor learning, motor observation, emotions-happiness, emotions-disgust, and so on. These diversity profiles are intended to reveal all the different task domains in which a particular brain area is involved. In other words, the neurons in that area are reused for as many task types as the plot shows.

To the best of our knowledge, no research has applied this method to adolescents. Furthermore, it would be extremely interesting to conduct this kind of study in longitudinal analyses, although the methodological limitations are obvious. Apart from the research field of neurodevelopment, several authors within psychology have stressed the importance of developing models that shift the focus away from the late maturation of cognition after adolescence.

In a similar way, using a gambling task, empirical research reveals that adolescents are rational decision makers, since they tend to reject disadvantageous gambles and to accept more favorable options more often than adults Barkley-Levenson and Galvan, Finally, it has recently been suggested that peaks in ventral striatum sensibility, which has classically been interpreted as a neural correlate of risk- or sensation-seeking, can be an adaptive neural mechanism to promote healthy behavior in adolescents, such as academic motivation, engagement in hobbies, healthy peer relations, and prosocial behaviors Telzer, According to the author, the interpretation of this neurodevelopmental fact may be understood as a source of vulnerability or of opportunity, depending on context maternal presence, peer influence, etc.

In this manuscript we have reviewed the neuropsychological development of adolescents in two different interpretations of brain functioning, namely componential computational and dynamic systemic. Remarkably, we have argued that the key words that best define emotional management in these models are regulation and integration, respectively. The final goal of our review was to show that the global interpretation of adolescent maturation depends on the underlying account of brain functioning. Ultimately, this will affect educational and legal policies to promote the best personal development of adolescents.

Before being implemented, the question of whether regulation or integration is the best approach to promoting emotional self-management in adolescents should be considered. With respect to the educational and legal consequences deriving from this account, a detailed description is far beyond the scope of this article. The simplified idea would be that adolescents are in a vulnerable condition due to their imbalanced development.

Therefore, legal and educational systems need to build a context within which adolescents are less prone to harming themselves or others. Concerning emotions they are understood as drivers of behavior, and youngsters should focus on being guided by positive emotions within the constraints set by the context.

On the other hand, if brain architecture is viewed under the scope of DSP, emotional management is interpreted as involving the whole system. In this case, emotions are integrated in the whole development of the subject. In our opinion, emotional management from DSP is framed as the growth of the whole person. The assumptions in this case are: i there are no brain modules, and mental processes-involving cognition and emotion-correlate with the activity of the brain as a whole; ii personal development does not involve a fixed end point, that is, a final emotional state that should be reached: integration of cognition and emotion delimitates a pathway of unrestricted growth, where the important issue for the subject is the process itself, rather than the final point; iii in the development of a system, all elements interact with each other from the beginning of the process; therefore, there is no independent transformation of elements.

What are the possible implications of DSP in terms of legal or educational policies? The systemic view and its associated understanding of emotional management, as we have proposed here, emphasize one critical point of adolescence: responsibility. Youngers are not viewed as vulnerable, but as living a unique opportunity to develop their own personal identity. Therefore, the educational system has to help them to seize the opportunity by going beyond the resolution of concrete immediate problems, and aiding the adolescent to contextualize each decision in a continuous growth landscape.

From this perspective, emotions give information about how development is taking place: they are something to reflect on, but not drivers of behavior. The prestigious philosopher of education Richard Stanley Peters states that the final aim of education is to turn adolescents into better men and women, and this is not achieved through mere training in certain cognitive or emotional abilities. In our opinion, recent neuroscientific findings demonstrate that DSP is a better model to explain brain anatomy and functioning, since CCA requires more conceptual assumptions. Likewise, integration may be a more adequate framework for emotional management than regulation, since it does not require conceptualizing the fragmented reality of adolescents.

JVOS originally conceived the hypothesis of this work. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol. Published online Aug Jose V. Oron Semper , Jose I. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

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This article was submitted to Developmental Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Apr 15; Accepted Aug 9. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

Overview of the functions of the cerebral cortex

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In this article we introduce the hypothesis that neuropsychological adolescent maturation, and in particular emotional management, may have opposing explanations depending on the interpretation of the assumed brain architecture, that is, whether a componential computational account CCA or a dynamic systems perspective DSP is used. Keywords: emotion regulation, executive functions, integration, personal identity, socialization.

Introduction Unraveling the structure and function of the brain is still a challenge for most psychologists and philosophers of mind. Two Accounts of Brain Functioning: Componential and Systemic While a discrete classification of all the views of brain functioning on offer may be unfair and in any case implausible, two views are overtly divergent: the componential computational account CCA and the dynamical systems perspective DSP.

Neuroanatomical Development Regarding neuronal and synaptic development during adolescence, the prefrontal cortex grows significantly with respect to the rest of the frontal cortex Kanemura et al. Neurofunctional Development The neuroanatomical changes mentioned above are related to the development of different functional features, such as memory, judgment, temporal discounting of rewards, cognitive interpretation of emotions, decision making, response to salient stimuli, and socialization.

Adolescent Emotional Management and the Componential Computational Account The mainstream view of the neuropsychological development of adolescents leans on emotional self-regulation and the control of risky behaviors, either intrinsic or extrinsic Vohs and Baumeister, ; Smith et al. Adolescent Emotional Management and the Systemic Perspective As explained above, the three main characteristics of the DSP are context dependency, functional temporal coupling of brain areas, and neural reuse.

Two Accounts of Adolescent Emotional Management: Regulation and Integration In this manuscript we have reviewed the neuropsychological development of adolescents in two different interpretations of brain functioning, namely componential computational and dynamic systemic. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Footnotes Funding. References Adolphs R. Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala.

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The dual systems model: review, reappraisal, and reaffirmation. The structure of the brain. Methods in neuropsychology. Sensory and motor function. Language and the brain. Visual mechanisms and Perception. Research summaries. Study aids. Show More Show Less. Best Selling in Nonfiction See all. Open Borders Inc.

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